In recent years, terrorism has developed rapidly and terrorist’s activities are quite frequent. After the 9/11 incident, the threat of international terrorism has caused a chain of reactions around the world. Terrorism has become a major challenge to deal at national, international, regional and inter-regional level. It has become a serious threat to some areas of China and its neighboring Southeast Asian counties. China and Southeast Asian counties are very important participants in international affairs that have considerable influence in international community. In recent years, both sides have significantly strengthened regional and bilateral cooperation in politics, economics, and culture. Since the two sides have a lot of common interests which has led their activities to fight against terrorism. They are carrying out effective counter-terrorism cooperation for larger interests and mutual understanding.
China and Southeast Asian counties have faced long varying degrees of terrorist threats. The rapid expansion of international terrorist organizations (like Al-Qaeda and Islamic State) have posed further threats and created complicated situations in the region. The connectivity of international and domestic terrorist organizations has increased the concerns of both parties. Both are cooperating on counter-terrorism under the United Nations (UN) platform and delivering their efforts at regional and sub-regional (bilateral) levels. They have played decisive role against regional terrorist organizations to achieve a series of results against regional terrorist organizations.
The terrorist threats to China and Southeast Asian counties are not similar; China is facing threats mainly from its domestic ‘East Turkestan’ terrorist organization of Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region and from Central Asian countries. China relies more on the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) to carry out anti-terrorism cooperation on western front. While, the main threats of terrorism to Southeast Asian counties are from the internal Islamic extremists and separatists forces. These factors are not directly posing any danger to China but indirectly it is effecting. Their geographic location has compelled both parties on common understanding on fight against terrorism on different grounds.
China believes that terrorism is a common enemy of the whole human community. In response, it has constrained two long hold principles non-interference and non-intervention. It’s both principles are based on to safeguard internal stability throughout China and to promote regional stability including Southeast Asian states. At the present, China is trying its best to develop good security and counter-terrorism relations with all regional and sub-regional countries. Due to historical differences with Southeast Asian countries, China has not developed very strong connectivity in security sector but, now it is developing good understanding to have strong and collective capabilities to fight against all form of terrorism.
Terrorism in China
For long time, China has remained a victim of terrorism. Terrorist activities of ‘East Turkistan’ have posed great threats to Chinese political stability, economic development and national unity. The current wave of international terrorism has stuck China in two aspects on the one hand, it has made anti-terrorism situation more complex in Xinjiang and on the other hand, it has extended the domestic terrorist attacks to outside areas of Xinjiang. This changing situation has also increased terrorist threats to China’s overseas interests.
China believes that international terrorism is effecting the anti-terrorism developments in Xinjiang. No doubt that geographically China is far away from the Islamic State and Al-Qaida but the threats and challenges still exist. It believes that more number of Xinjiang people are joining ‘East Turkistan’ and they are creating linkages with international terrorist organizations (especially to IS). This all happens when they cross the border and get the trainings from IS and other regional terrorist organizations.
China believes that different extremist organizations of Southeast Asian countries are supporting East Turkistan movement. Abu Wardah (Santoso) the commander of East Indonesian Mujahideen has openly supported Chinese Muslims of Xinjiang and accepted 100 Xinjiang extremists for training. China also believes that East Turkistan’s member after receiving training participated in Turkey, Iraq and Syria in combat operations to seek more recognition from international terrorist forces. There are many people who illegally returned to China and challenged the China’s domestic policy plan and created many problems.
According to the Ministry of Public Security of China, there is a group in the southwest border which help East Turkistan militants to cross and enter the border from Yunnan, Guangxi, Guangdong and vice versa. The facilitator group arranges temporarily places for their stayed give them passage via land or waterway. The international terrorist connectivity influenced the East Turkistan’s members to development new doctrine of domestic terrorism. It has brought certain changes even in their manifesto of 1990s demand of seeking independent state – the East Turkistan. Now, they are become the part of jihad – to defend religion (Islam). This is what the ultimate goal of IS in Iraq and Syria.
Terrorism in Southeast Asian Countries
Southeast Asia has always been a region where multiple civilizations and multiple religions are living together. The complexity of terrorism, religious extremism and separatism has broken regional fabric of the Southeast Asian society. In recent terrorists attacks in Bangkok, Jakarta, once again focused the world’s attention on the region. These terrorist activities also show the presence of international terrorist organization inside the region. According to the Global Terrorism Index statistics 42 extremist organizations around the world have announced their allegiance to IS and 16% of extremist organizations are from Southeast Asia countries.
Apart from Islamic extremism and ethnic separatist forces Southeast Asia region also effected with unique and extreme maritime terrorism, money laundering, drugs smuggling, human trafficking, and transnational crimes. These all problems are actually intertwined with regional and international terrorist activities within and outside of region. No one can deny that Southeast Asian countries are not victim of extremism and terrorism. They are also clearly aware of the threats of regional and international terrorist organizations. The emergence of new wave of IS in Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore, Thailand and Philippines is very alarming. These five countries have become ‘transfer station’ for the IS militants to travel different countries of world including Syria and Iraq. In the 2014 edition of Islamic States magazine claimed that IS has established its branch in Nigeria and in that branch 700 militants are only from Indonesia. No doubt that the threats of terrorism in Southeast Asian countries has further increased. China geographically neighbouring Southeast Asian countries and its increasing involvement of terrorism may easily influence East Turkistan movement of China.
Anti-terrorism Cooperation between China and Southeast Asian countries
In the face of severe anti-terrorism situation, Southeast Asian countries have formulated counter measures to increase anti-terrorism capabilities. Individually, each state is trying its best to make sure full proof security to international tourists, the busiest sea route Strait of Malacca, oil facilities, foreign embassies (especially Western embassies) and consulates. Meanwhile, all the Southeast Asian countries have taken many initiatives to cooperate with regional counties in the war against terrorism. At the same time, they put more emphasis on existing cooperation mechanisms which started in 2001 and 2002 under the umbrella of Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) leaders. In 2003 ASEAN Summit meeting, the leaders announced to establish ‘ASEAN Security Community.’ Its goal was to establish a common defense line to maintain regional peace and stability. In that same year Southeast Asian Regional Center for Counter-Terrorism (SEARCCT) began to operate in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The center focuses on the formation, process and characteristics of terrorist organizations and paid more attention to regional border security, joint counter-terrorism training, and support for post-disaster management or any terrorist incident.
China is main neighbor of Southeast Asia countries, both have many common interests and positions to work on counter-terrorism. They have clear idea that terrorism can threaten security, stability, and development of both entities. Terrorism is defiantly against the openness of Chinese modernization and reforms. China and ASEAN are having good and constructive understanding of mutual economic development. The ASEAN-China Free Trade Area (ACFTA) is one of the milestones of their constructive implementation strategy on economic and trade activities between Southeast Asia and Chinese citizens in the region. Meanwhile, the threats of terrorism also remain big challenge for both parties. Southeast Asian countries are important sources of energy for China. It is also one of the important channels for energy transportation in the region. In the recent years the maritime terror in the region is on rise. It is directly threatening the common interests of all parties.
In November 2002, China and ASEAN leaders made joint declaration on ‘Non-traditional Security Cooperation’. In 2004 China initiated and participated in Joint Communiqué of the First ASEAN Plus Three Ministerial Meeting on Transnational Crime (AMMTC+3) meeting. The meeting agreed to establish cooperation mechanism between ASEAN, China, Japan and South Korea to combat transnational criminals. China has further strengthened its implementation on anti-terrorism and law enforcement exchanges and cooperation with the legal departments with Southeast Asian countries. It also included the establishment of bilateral agreement to combat terrorism and extremism. The Joint Declaration on 2002 was further strengthened by Memorandum of Understanding on ASEAN-China Nontraditional security cooperation singed in 2004 in Bangkok. Since then China and Southeast Asian countries are cooperating in the field of drug trafficking, illegal immigration, including trafficking in women and children, maritime piracy, arms smuggling, money laundering, international economic crimes, cybercrime and terrorism.
China and Southeast Asian countries now have enough experience in combating terrorism. Both have recognized that terrorism is a common threat. They have developed bilateral and multilateral cooperation at all levels (United Nations, Regional, Sub-regional and bilateral levels) to counter-terrorism and gradually achieved success. However, there are still many traditional obstacles in terms of political consensus and cooperation. If we will generalize the overall situation we will find that the political terms, China has maintained good relations with most Southeast Asian countries and established many channels of dialogue. However, most of these cooperation channels are concentrated in the economic and trade field, and discussions on counter-terrorism cooperation are not deep enough. In terms of military exchanges, China and some Southeast Asian countries have signed cooperation agreements and held joint anti-terrorism exercises with countries such as Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, and Vietnam. However, these exercises are still small in scale, and short in time.
United Nations level
As the largest sovereign organization of sovereign states, the United Nations (UN) is the international platform with the highest level of influence and statutory cooperation. Counter-terrorism cooperation at the UN level is like a universal cooperation. The UN plays a leading role in combating terrorism. The cooperation of China and Southeast Asian countries on counter-terrorism is also built around the principles of UN. Since 1999, the UN Security Council has passed 14 resolutions on counter-terrorism. After the 9/11 terrorist attack in the United States, the UN Security Council unanimously adopted the 1373 resolution on September 28, 2001, under which the Counter-Terrorism Committee (CTC) was establish, and subsequently the Security Council established the Counter-Terrorist Executive Directorate (CTED).
China is a permanent member of UN, and other Southeast Asia countries are the members of UN General Assembly together, they are playing an active role in counter-terrorism. On September 8, 2006 the UN adopted the UN Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy in which China played leading role. It is one of the best counter terrorism cooperation guides for Southeast Asian countries. The UN also encourages all countries and regions to actively carry out regional, multilateral, and bilateral cooperation under the principles of the UN Charter and the UN Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy. However, the current situation is not that good because the role of UN on counter-terrorism cooperation is relatively limited.
The counter-terrorism cooperation between China and Southeast Asian countries carried out at the regional level within the framework of a series of regional organizations such as ASEAN, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), and Asia–Europe Meeting (ASEM), Conference on Interaction and Confidence Building Measures in Asia (CICA) and unofficial and multilateral mechanisms.
- Anti-terrorism cooperation between China and Southeast Asian countries under the ASEAN framework: ASEAN is a very important level of combating regional terrorism. China and ASEAN have already carried out long-term cooperation in the field of non-traditional security and achieved a series of results. In November 2002, China and ASEAN issued the ‘Joint Declaration on China-ASEAN Cooperation on Non-Traditional Security Fields’ to jointly combat drug trafficking, illegal immigration, maritime piracy, terrorism, and transnational crimes such as smuggling, money laundering, international economic crimes and cybercrime. It opened up new doors of cooperation between China and ASEAN in combating transnational crime. In January 2004, China and ASEAN members signed the Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) on China-ASEAN Non-Traditional Security Cooperation. The two sides have refined their cooperation responsibilities in the field of transnational crimes, including terrorism. In 2007, at the 12th ASEAN summit, the ASEAN Convention on Counter-Terrorism was adopted. At the same time, the ASEAN Defense Ministers Conference was establish and was held in September 2013. On the basis of China-ASEAN Non-Traditional Security Cooperation, for the first China participated in joint anti-terrorism exercise. China and ASEAN revised the MoU on Non-Traditional Security Cooperation in 2009 to prevent and combat terrorism. In addition, the ASEAN Regional Forum under the ASEAN framework, the ASEAN Summit, the East Asia Summit, the ASEAN Defense Ministers Conference and China-ASEAN Defense and Security Dialogue are important platforms for China and ASEAN to carry out counter-terrorism cooperation. On May 2015 the 13th ASEAN Regional Forum Security Policy Conference (ASPC) held and discussed the annual work plan of ‘anti-terrorism and combating transnational crimes 2015-2016’. The 27th ASEAN Summit held on November 2015, the meeting listed the issue of counter-terrorism as one of the focal points. This was also the first time that the anti-terrorism issue had become the focus of the summit. Under the ASEAN framework law enforcement cooperation China and ASEAN counties also achieved good results. Since then the security cooperation enhanced, China has organized anti-drug law enforcement and technology for ASEAN countries. More than 200 training programs, including maritime law enforcement, crime case studies, immigration management, cybercrime investigation, etc., held and invited more than 4,000 ASEAN law enforcement officials from member states to China for training. The Chinese side has also sent a number of law enforcement officials to the ASEAN countries for training. Pragmatic cooperation has achieved great outcomes.
- Anti-terrorism cooperation between China and Southeast Asian countries under the APEC mechanism: China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam are the members of APEC, and the ASEAN Secretariat is also one of the observers. The APEC Summit in November 2015 broke the traditional practice of the Asia Pacific organization for economic cooperation and development and suggested that trade and business oriented counties need to give more focus on strengthening counter-terrorism cooperation. The declaration formed by the meeting stated: “We will not allow terrorism to threaten the fundamental values that underpin our free and open economies. Economic growth, prosperity, and opportunity are among the most powerful tools to address the root causes of terrorism and radicalization. We stress the urgent need for increased international cooperation and solidarity in the fight against terrorism.” The APEC safe trade strategy against terror plays an active role in strengthening international cooperation against terrorism, especially in combating terrorist financing.
- Anti-terrorism cooperation between China and Southeast Asian countries under the ASEM mechanism: China and 10 members of the ASEAN countries are members of the ASEM. The first ASEM anti-terrorism seminar was held in 2003, it was sponsor by China. In 2004, the second ASEM counter-terrorism seminar was rename the ASEM conference on anti-terrorism, followed by the annual meetings of members of Asia and Europe. All ASEM members actively participated in the conference, they shared their anti-terrorism experiences and practices, and decided to establish the ASEM anti-terrorism mechanism on intelligence sharing, personnel training, strengthening of legislation and law enforcement agencies cooperation. In 12th ASEM meeting which was held on November 6, 2015, all member states expressed their willingness to support the international anti-terrorism of cooperation, the rapid expansion of IS in the world has also drawn deep concern from all parties.
- Anti-terrorism cooperation between China and Southeast Asian countries under the Conference on Interaction and Confidence Building Measures in Asia (CICA): CICA is multilateral forum on security issues aimed to discuss measures to strengthen cooperation and increase trust among Asian countries. China, Thailand, Vietnam, Cambodia are the member state, and Indonesia, Philippines, and Malaysia are observer countries. But until now seven Southeast Asian countries are not yet included in the CICA mechanism. Since 2002, anti-terrorism has been an important topic of the CICA. It has brought China and Southeast Asian countries together. Some countries are discussing and cooperating with China on anti-terrorism and have played a positive role.
- Anti-terrorism cooperation between China and Southeast Asian countries under the unofficial and multilateral mechanisms: China and Southeast Asian countries actively participate in the Council for Security Cooperation in the Asia Pacific, Shangri-La Dialogue. A part from these non-official multilateral mechanisms such as International Counter-Terrorism Forum explores and strengthens cooperation between both parties. More importantly sixth Xiangshan Forum which was held on October 2015 at Beijing in which 11 ministers of Southeast Asian countries participated. It shows the deepening of anti-terrorism cooperation between China and Southeast Asia.
Sub-regional and bilateral
China and Southeast Asian countries have developed good sub-regional and bilateral connectivity to counter terrorism in the form of sub-regional and bilateral agreements and MoUs. Some of the leading agreements are discussed below:
The Mekong River Joint Patrol Agreement: Since December 2011, the joint patrols of China, Laos, Myanmar and Thailand law enforcement agencies regularly taken place on Mekong River. The joint patrol was the result of the Mekong River massacre on 5 October 2011, when two Chinese cargo ships were attack on a stretch of the Mekong River in the Golden Triangle region on the borders of Myanmar and Thailand. All 13 crew members on the two ships were kill and dumped in the river. It was the deadliest attack on Chinese nationals abroad in modern times. In response, China temporarily suspended shipping on the Mekong, and reached an agreement with Myanmar, Thailand and Laos to jointly patrol the river. So far, the law enforcement departments of the four countries have successfully completed the joint patrol for 82 consecutive times. In the framework of the four-nation security cooperation mechanism, the law enforcement department of four countries will jointly carry out the joint patrol of Mekong River to prevent, combat and stop illegal crimes in the Mekong River Basin. The joint patrol is for repaid respond to emergencies and maintains shipping security. It has played a good deterrent role against transnational crimes. The various forms of transnational crime are often closely related to terrorist activities. Maritime law enforcement activities also laid a foundation for counter-terrorism cooperation.
Bilateral anti-terrorism cooperation: On November 7, 2015, China and Singapore signed the “All-Round Cooperative Partnership Progressing with the Times” agreement. The joint statement clearly stated that the two sides should strengthen cooperation on law enforcement and security. Jointly combat transnational crimes such as corruption and money laundering. Both countries should continue to provide strong support on mutual legal assistance matters as well as asset recovery in accordance with their respective laws. Deepen anti-terrorism cooperation and strengthen intelligence and information exchange within both the bilateral and multilateral frameworks.  The most recent iteration of exercise cooperation, a bilateral army exercise between China and Singapore is one of several components of their security ties. China and Vietnam issued a joint communiqué on April 8, 2015. It emphasized that deepening cooperation in security and law enforcement, fostering security dialogues, effectively implementing cooperation mechanisms and signed cooperation agreements; reinforcing cooperation in terrorism combat, drug control, migration management, border management, and cyber security; ensuring safety for agencies, businesses, and citizens of both countries. In the same spirit both China and Vietnam have successfully held joint anti-terrorism exercises ‘Red River 1 and 2’ in 2015 and 2016 in the Chinese estuary, and accumulated valuable experience for the anti-terrorism cooperation between the two sides. China and Thailand have also established good relations to counter terrorism. Both states have established joint mechanism for anti-terrorism cooperation. The best example of their cooperation is the joint anti-terrorism trainings of the People’s Liberation Army and the Royal Thai Amy (Special Forces). These joint anti-terrorism training began in 2010 and up to now, both sides have carried out four joint anti-terrorism trainings. The pragmatic cooperation between the Chinese and Thai armed forces seems to be further deepening. China and Indonesia defense and security consultation started in 2006, since then the military exchanges and cooperation have been continued and deepen. Both countries are also strengthening bilateral anti-terrorism cooperation, airborne troops of China and Indonesia have joint anti-terror trainings in 2013 and 2014. These military trainings were the pragmatic exchange activity of Indonesian Special Forces at the strategic level. The joint training subject focused on counter-terrorism training and highlights counter-terrorism skills and technology. In result Chinese and Indonesian law enforcement agencies prevented many attempts of Chinese militants who were going to Indonesia to join the ranks of Islamic Jihad. China and Malaysia have also established a counter-terrorism cooperation mechanism. During the visit of Chinese vice Minister of Public Security to Malaysia in 2015, the two sides reached a consensus on counter-terrorism and agreed to carry out counter-terrorism information exchange and strengthen joint cooperation. In August 2018, Prime Minister of Malaysia Dr. Mahathir Bin Mohamad visited China and both sides agreed to have cooperation in defense, law enforcement and counter-terrorism, with a view to jointly maintaining regional security and stability.
Influence of External Factors
After 9/11 attack, the United States regarded Southeast Asia as the second front and the deep Muslim religious soil to fight against terrorism. US was facing a natural resentment against the war on terrorism in Indonesia and Malaysia. The Islamic radical groups organized several large-scale anti-American demonstrations. The general public believes that the war on terror is a war against Islam. US not only formulated counter-terrorism measures for ASEAN member states, but also provided funds, support and jointly carried out anti-terrorism exercises. The United States used anti-terrorism to strengthen more its relations with Southeast Asian countries. It had an important impact on the security and foreign policy of Southeast Asian counties. The anti-terrorism cooperation between China and Southeast Asian countries had also an impact which cannot be denied. Some countries in Southeast Asia countries deeply rely on western powers, (especially the United States), which is an objective need for their national interests. No doubt that anti-terrorism cooperation between the United States and Southeast Asian countries has played an active role in building anti-terrorism capabilities. However, some believes that in the name of counter-terrorism, the US intends to strengthen its military presence and security influence in the region.
The relations between China and Southeast Asian countries are developing in right direction – which covers economic, political and security aspects. China and Southeast Asia countries have many interests and positions on anti-terrorism cooperation. However, they want to balance China with United States in terms of security and anti-terrorism cooperation. Southeast Asian countries economically depend on China, and for security issues and cooperation relies heavily on the United States. Anti-terrorism cooperation may become one of the strategic means for balancing countries in Southeast Asia. After founding ASEAN they must have their own vision and strong will, which may not allow any other country to dominate their inter and external affairs. The face of imbalances economic development in the region have created complex security issues, which may not solved by them. They may only rely on the assistance of major countries such as China and the United States. China, United States and Southeast Asian countries are victims of terrorism and also actively fighting against terrorism and one way or other cooperating with each other to counter-terrorism. Southeast Asia counties counter-terrorism cooperation with US and China is like maintaining balance of great power strategy. Therefore, if Southeast Asian countries say that their cooperation with China is limited, it is not that much difficult to understand that there are reservations.
China claims that there are plenty of options to counter domestic and international terrorism, and economic perspective is one of them. It believes that economic prosperity may demoralize and reduce the root causes of terrorism. The One Belt, One Road (BRI) initiative is also road map of economic prosperity on win-win bases. It passes through many countries which are heavily affected of three shared forces “terrorists, religious extremists, ethnic separatists’. These three forces are the great threat to the BRI strategy, but shared vision of BRI in economic prosperity and human development may shake terrorists, religious extremists, and ethnic separatists. At the present, BRI is focusing on cooperation with any region or countries. It will defiantly expand China’s involvement and it is ready to fight with international terrorism. It is good opportunity for China to involve Southeast Asian countries in BRI and strengthen mutual more capabilities to fight against terrorism.
In the new wave of global terrorism, Southeast Asia countries have become a center of religious extremists groups because it is an important location for hiding, training and engaging international terrorist organizations. The IS presence in few regional states of Southeast Asia is posing serious threats to all other regional and neighbouring states – including China. The geopolitical environment of this region is very much supportive for IS. China has shown its huge concerns and believes that Xinjiang problem is getting more strength due to illegal border crossing of Xinjiang extremist to some Southeast Asian counties. This is one of the reason that Southeast Asia has become an increasingly worthy of China’s international counter-terrorism cooperation. China has enhanced the cooperation with Southeast Asian states to fight against terrorism.
In the long run, anti-terrorism cooperation between China and Southeast Asian countries is the best solution, based on mutual political trust, mutual security cooperation, and mutual reinforcement. In order to achieve the ultimate victory, all the regional stakeholders must eradicate the soil that breeds terrorism and should work together more to foster a social atmosphere of tolerance and cooperation for dispelling religious extremism and terrorism. This will bring peace to China and Southeast Asia countries because the interests are closely linked.
 Purbrick, Martin. “Maintaining a Unitary State: Counter-Terrorism, Separatism, and Extremism in Xinjiang and China”. Asian Affairs 48, No. 2 (2017): 236-256
 Zheng Yongnian. “China’s anti-terrorism is facing an increasingly severe situation”, Singapore Eye, October 27, 2015, http://www.yan.sg/mianglingyuelaiyujeyanjundejumian.
 “Indonesia is guilty of six-year imprisonment for Uighurs and the plan to combat the Islamic Jihadist.” The Paper, July 30, 2015, http://www.thepaper.cn/newsDetail_forward_1358571.
 Qiu Yongzhen and Xing Xiaowei. “East Turkistan’s exit from the South to the final goal of ISIS to return to China”, Global Times, September 22, 2014.
 “East Turkestan: Chinese Claims of Release of Uyghur Detainees Unverifiable”, The Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization, July 31, 2019, available at https://unpo.org/article/21607 .
 Eliott C. MecLaughlin. “Tourists among 22 killed in apparent attack on Bangkok shrine,” CNN, August 17, 2015.
 “Jakarta attack: Bombs and gunfire rock Indonesian capital,” BBC News, 14 January 2016.
 “Global Terrorism Index: Map shows where 42 different militant groups have pledged support to ISIS,” The Independent, December 10, 2015, http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/middle-east/global-terrorism-index-the-mapthat-Shows-where-42- different-militant-groups-have-pledged-support-to-a6767051.html.
 Abuza, Zachary. “Learning by doing: Al Qaeda’s allies in southeast Asia”. Current History 103, No. 672 (2004): 171.
 Qiu Yongzhen and Xing Xiaowei. “East Turkistan’s exit from the South to the final goal of ISIS to return to China”, Global Times, September 22, 2014.
 “ASEAN-China Free Trade Area (ACFTA) Agreement”, available at: https://asean.org/?static_post=asean-china-free-trade-area-2
 “China and ASEAN Joint Declaration on Non-Traditional Security Cooperation”, People’s Daily, November 14, 2002.
 “Joint Communiqué of the First ASEAN Plus Three Ministerial Meeting on Transnational Crime (AMMTC+3),” available at: https://asean.org/page/542/?static_post
 “The UN Security Council unanimously passed the resolution against IS”, People’s Daily, January 22, 2015, http://world.people.com.cn/n/2015/1122/c157278-27840947.html.
 “Security Council Counter-Terrorism Committee”, United Nations, August 9, 2013, http: // www.un.org/zh/sc/ctc/.
 “The ASEAN Regional Forum held a conference on counter-terrorism and transnational crime in Nanning”, Xinhuanet, May 14, 2015, http://news.xinhuanet.com/world/2015-05/14/c_1115288425.htm.
 “The ASEAN Summit focuses on the three themes of the South China Sea, regional economic integration and anti-terrorism”, Xinhuanet, November 25, 2015 http://news.xinhuanet.com/world/2015-11/25/c_128464994_2.htm.
 Shi Yang. “Summary of China-ASEAN Law Enforcement Security Cooperation”, Ministry of Public Security of the People’s Republic of China, October 22, 2015, http://www.mps.gov.N16/n1237/n1342/n803680/4864503.html.
 “2015 Leaders’ Declaration Manila, Philippines”, Asian Pacific Economic Cooperation, November 19, 2015, https://www.apec.org/Meeting-Papers/Leaders-Declarations/2015/2015_aelm.
 “The ASEM countries hope to support international counter-terrorism cooperation”, Russian Satellite Network, November 06, 2015, http://sputniknews.cn/politics/20151106/1016908056.html.
 Xuxin. “82nd joint patrol on Mekong River concludes”, Xinhua News, May 05, 2019, available at: http://www.xinhuanet.com/english/2019-05/24/c_138086861.htm.
 “Joint Statement of the People’s Republic of China and the Republic of Singapore on Establishing a Comprehensive Partnership for Advancing with the Times (Full Text)”, Xinhuanet, November 07, 2015, http://news.xinhuanet.com/world/2015-11/07/c_1117071914.htm.
 Prashanth Parameswaran. “China-Singapore Military Ties in Focus With Army Exercise”, The Diplomat, July 29, 2019, available at: https://thediplomat.com/2019/07/china-singapore-military-ties-in-focus-with-army-exercise/
 “Vietnam, China issue joint communiqué”, Nhan Dan Online, April 8, 2015, available at: https://en.nhandan.org.vn/politics/item/3260802-vietnam-china-issue-joint-communique.html
 “China-Vietnam ‘Red River 1-2015’ joint anti-terrorism exercise was held in Hekou, China”, Yangguang News July 30, 2015, http://news.cnr.cn/native/City/20150730/t20150730_519364385.shtml; and ‘Counter-terrorism exercise “Red River 2-2016” organized’ People’s Army Newspaper, September 28, 2016, available at: https://en.qdnd.vn/military/intl-relations-and-cooperation/counter-terrorism-exercise-red-river-2-2016-organized-473950.
 “The Sino-Thai Air Force will hold joint training for the first time, codenamed ‘Eagle-2015’”, Guangming, November 11, 2015, http://mil.gmw.cn/2015-11/11/content_17690186.htm.
“Chinese and Indonesian airborne troops held ‘Airborne Blade-2014’ joint counter-terrorism training”, International Online, October 28, 2014, http://gb.cri.cn/42071/2014/10/28/6071s4744338.htm.
 “China and Indonesia to prevent terrorists from concatenation”, Reference News Network, January 8, 2016, http://www.cankaoxiaoxi.com/world/20160108/1048257.shtml.
 “Joint statement by governments of China and Malaysia on bilateral ties”, The Star Online, 20 Aug 2018, available at: https://www.thestar.com.my/news/nation/2018/08/20/joint-statement-by-governments-of-china-and-malaysia-on-bilateral-ties
 Andrew T. H. Tan. A Handbook of Terrorism and Insurgency in Southeast Asia, Edward Elgar Publishing Limited, 2007, pp. 3-4.
 Li Chenyang. “The obstacles to China’s ASEAN relations towards the ‘Diamond Decade’”, Hexun, December 24, 2015, http://opinion.hexun.com/2015-12-24/181383482.html.
 Weiwen Yin. “Rooted in Poverty?: The Political Economy of Terrorism in Xinjiang”, Japanese Journal of Political Science, Volume 18, Issue 1, (March 2017): 41-66
 Liu Haiquan. “The Security Challenge of the ‘One Belt, One Road’ Strategy and China’s Choice”, Pacific Journal, No. 2, (2015).
 Faris Mokhtar. “Why South-east Asia is a fertile ground for ISIS, Today”, Today Online, February 2, 2019, available at: https://www.todayonline.com/big-read/big-read-short-why-south-east-asia-fertile-ground-isis