Radicalization is a considerably huge process of an in increasing degree of radicalism in an individual or group. Hereby would be the willingness to use violence with pursue profound changes in and for the purpose of society and its democratic legal order. As well as third parties possibly for this purpose ‘(Gielen, 2008).
Radicalization is a sustainable process, breaking the links after all, with the established society it takes time and energy. It is layered in the sense that it is for generations, groups of soul mates and may concern individuals. It is multifaceted because of the numerous
various dimensions which it includes being political, religious and socially cultural.
Radicalism is a dynamic process coming about of different phases with great unique diversity dimension. Initially we note that the social context plays a primordial role
plays with actors as grounds for justice (disadvantage and discrimination), as well as Individual factors (perceived threat social identity) are considered relevant (Koomen and Van der Pligt, 2009). Ideological influences from the contexts circumstances also play a role here. In the second phase of the radicalization process we see the emphasis shift to earlier group processes, the social environment and the far-reaching justice processes.
The justification for ‘disadvantage’ is very often explained as one of the most stimulating actors for the phenomenon radicalize. Certainly if the perceived subordination
has a major impact on the Individual or the group to which he / she belongs. Relative deprivation is primarily linked to radicalization. The socio-economic disadvantage often goes accompanied by justification ‘discrimination’, which means paid population groups are in a marginal, isolated position to situate.
Mainly the interpretation and perception with regard to from the social position contribute extremely to the urge for radicalize (Koomen and Van der Pligt, 2009, Reinares et al., 2009,
Mc Cauley and Moskalenko, 2008). Extensive justification processes make that some individuals be enabled to commit violence. They include, among other things that the victims will be labeled as guilty, they namely did not actively stand up for the defense of ideology. On the other hand, one considers the injustice done to one’s own group as the responsibility of the other party or the group ‘, which justifies the use of violence.
There is also talk of the so-called dehumanization of the enemy whereby it is as it were stripped of all human properties.
In the final phase we note the switch to terrorism. Already is very clearly to note that not all radicalising persons or groups necessarily switch to violence. Actual terror arises in the absence of non-violent opportunities to achieve a certain goal.
We thus note very complex puzzle of psycho-social aspects, social circumstances. An ideological framework in which individual dissatisfaction is collectivized, strategies
be legitimized and there can be evidence of spontaneous
influence and possibly trigger moment (s). At the outset people should be attracted to radical ideas approach a person as a normal, usually psychologically healthy person
person who does not feel at home in the society where he is in live. The person searches for a better world and is willing to devote a lot to sacrifice in order to realize this utopian vision of life.
Radicalization is a dynamic, very complex process where one individual gradually develops a radical line of thought that is sometimes possible lead to radical action in other words extremism. It involves a gradual transformation involving the individual
criticizes society and / or concerning democratic values. There is, as it were, a breach of trust with the individual and society. There are numerous factors that are causally related
to achieve radicalization. Factors concerning the broad view society; as being polarization in society, perceived great injustice, insufficient space for that religious experience.
Negatively charged and stereotypical reporting, exposure to violence, media. Regarding the relational factors such as the social network experienced, the upbringing,
coping style … Finally, many factors play a role at the micro level. Number of
individual characteristics such as a negative self-image, lack of perspective, isolation, lack of connection, frustration, feeling misunderstood, limited religious knowledge, psychological vulnerability, personality development, a major event …
Notions with radicalization: Own protection or need to get involved to be fit into a circle of friends. Escape from one problematic home situation. Need for excitement and sensation. The longer this takes, the more ideological! Thus initially not the ideology but rather a need.
From a purely psychological point of view, radicalism and radicalization seen as a symptom. And a symptom that can ultimately lead to extremism and terror.
Is one born a terrorist? One becomes like a Psychopath born? Man is born as good as an “unwritten leaf.”Immediately after birth we each go on a journey and we are
at the mercy of a social system directly around us out. This should normally be our parents. Our first 14 years of life form ‘the basis’ for the rest of us life. We clarify this on the basis of a profiling circle. With with the help of this circle we can quickly find out why the
for example, one knows how to sustain itself in this society when a Narcissist and the other one suffers as a victim from a Narcissist. What is the reason we quote Narcissism in this opinion piece about radicalization? We see many characteristics of Narcissism come back in the profile of a radicalized personality. One could “designate” a radicalized personality is a Narcissist of the highest level.
Every individual walks through this circle, everyone on his / her own way. In the base, birth, we can already have a solid foundation imposed that continues to haunt us for the rest of our lives. The first 8 years of life we are, as it were, a vacuum. We absorb all stimuli, positive and negative of course. At the birth we are already confronted with 2 very important onesmechanisms :
During pregnancy we note a (almost) perfect symbiotic / autonomous relationship balance with mother in other words there is presence of safety, warmth, sustainability. The first days, weeks and months immediately after birth belongs the social
system (parents / society cf. radicalization trigger) for a adequate balance to satisfy symbiosis and autonomy. Too much symbiosis can cause anxious psychological profiles in
maturity. Too much autonomy is possible for ‘depressive’ psychological profiles
concerns in adulthood. Depressed in the sense of being solo behavioral profiles, up to a pure depression in which everything as dark can be experienced in daily life.
We can distinguish 3 important foundations that are long-term play a role in various in the long term personalities :
– Too much symbiosis (too little / nil autonomy) -> anxious profile
– Too much autonomy (too little / nil symbiosis) -> depressed profile
– A mix of both -> anxious-depressed profil
In human psychology we can conclude that we become ‘our’
immediate environment. This fact is very important in the so-called ‘sponge’ phase (0 – 7
a 8yrs). In this phase we collect everything from our direct surroundings.
In the ‘sponge’ phase, we will go a plus / minus system as a person build up. In this phase we classify events as positive or negative. Our response profile determines whether we have a + or – one of them to make. What is negative for one may be for the other
positive. So we build a database ourselves in our Plus brain and negative experiences. Comments regarding the plus / minus system. If a certain signal is classified as negative (minus) then our reptile brain will immediately become ‘us’ to take over. Reptile brain will want to go the negative experience survive and give us a response profile. We know this as fighting / flight mode. We either start fighting or fleeing ‘it signal ‘what we experience as negative. There is also the so-called shut-down mechanism. This is a mechanism that will be used by the reptile brain when The Trauma is so big that we need to are protected against all sensory stimuli. After this so-called ‘sponge’ phase we enter a completely new phase, the so-called ‘modeling phase’. Around the age of 8 we start to become ‘critical’ towards our immediate vicinity. There is a so-called ‘critical’ in this phase filter ‘installed in our brain. See this as a layer between it consciousness and the so-called subconscious. In the ‘modeling’ phase, we are going to have a psychological profile
modeling using the role models in our immediate environment. We are going to the people who are important to us in this phase as a role model in combination with the plus / minus system from the first 8 years of life. We will continue to do this until around the age of 14 year of life. In the first 14 years of life we therefore become our environment!
What about the beliefs of our role models? What to think of norms / values packages of our role models?
Conclusion we create our Life script in the first 14 years of life,
which is therefore strongly influenced by our ‘direct social system’.
We start our psychological profile from the age of 14 to expand further. Too much symbiosis in the initial phase can matter lead us to create a psychological model later with the theme: ‘I can’t do that’ or ‘I don’t dare’. This is possible, for example come back in a psychological profile in which one always finds others needs to get ‘something’ done.
See our psychological profile from the first 18 to 21 years of life we come back in our interaction with the direct world around us. Personality disorders show their true form in
combination with interactions with the immediate (social) environment. Our true nature comes to the surface in stressful for example situations. Social pressure is one of these stressful situations. Private situations (family), workplace (colleagues, your direct boss,
etc.). We have now arrived at the bottom of the profiling circle.
Our profile is based on a system in which there is, for example, much too
a lot of autonomy was in the initial phase then we distrust everything and
everybody. This is a group that wants to be continuously based on their ‘Life script’
connect with the other, but distrust the other. This group
we call it ‘solists’. The ‘solist’, for example, is characterized by
to focus on their career, for example. They quickly create a ‘stage’ and build a social system around them that continuously needs to give an applause. At the bottom of
in the circle we see our reaction patterns coming back during our interactions with the social system in our immediate environment. State the ‘solist’ on his / her stage and someone stops the applause then it starts to become interesting for us. There will be in the
‘solist’, for example, a reaction mechanism is started. To depending on whether the soloist is emotionally mature or immature, he / she they start reacting from this reaction mechanism. That is possible, for example being an anger attack, this is what we call ‘evil’ in system therapy ‘child modus’.
The individual NEVER responds to the event and / or a person ourselves, we respond to the symbolism that is recognized in a certain event. If the BASE of an individual is very traumatic then we sometimes see a special mechanism taking place. The Brain chooses
for the individual which path to go in a certain event. Recognizes Het Brein ‘the old pain’, which is because of Het Brein classified in the 1st 14 years of life as ‘too painful’, then
it creates a SHUT-OFF MECHANISM.
This rejection mechanism is therefore one survival mechanism. The reptile brain takes the individual completely over and start a survival strategy, in this case it ‘off the attacker’. “The attacker” is The Social System in the immediate environment of the individual. Repelling is at the service of the not having to experience much older pain. The Reptile Brain chooses to create a new pain to the old much more powerful pain not having to experience. On the basis of this circle we can radicalize and drive to extremism. Depending on the depth of identity issues, temperament and symbiosis autonomy with own parents and the social system is going on are passed no radicalism yes or no.
The identity development appears within the possible radicalization process thus a very crucial period. Between 10 and the 25-year-olds are developing rapidly. A development
characterized by the search for an identity of its own. To own norms and values and views. Knowing this the brain of these young people also no evolving, especially the
pre-cortex, the part of the brain that makes it possible to to think in a nuanced way, to make rational decisions and to have emotions to check. The pre-cortex is not fully grown until the 25th year. There IS a lack of inhibition, which causes an increase in hormones
young people often experience violent and rapidly changing feelings. There are
therefore often made impulsive decisions. The young have difficulty estimating long-term consequences and are often used up search for kicks and immediate satisfaction. There is an extremely limited perspective. These young people are therefore strong influenceable and susceptible to radical ideas.
Additional … Every individual is a meaning-seeking creature! Searching for
identity, seeking to give meaning to the life he or she
A defined identity provides a sense of certainty,
self-esteem and solidarity with the world that the person
surrounds …. To be able to enter into relationships with others is to have
of an identity is an absolute requirement.
Certain young Muslims are walking against the limits of the
In addition, they are often endorsed by
intelligence services and they are always labeled as
“terrorist”. A former Syrian warrior is by definition labeled as
Where each individual is unique in his background, degree of
radicalization, degree of fanaticism etc …
It often concerns individuals in the so vulnerable development period,
the identity development. It concerns a young person who is involved
is in a matter of life. Young people seeking safety and security
Processes of identity formation and specific needs
binding, acceptance and appreciation play an immensely important role
within the radicalization process.
After all, a positive self-image is very important for the
development of self-confidence, for a sense of bonding and
giving meaning. It provides a greater problem and conflict-solving capacity
the capacity to be critical and autonomous. A lack of
associated with self-esteem and a desire for stabilizing
collateral, a lack of acceptance and a negative self-image; this
makes a person susceptible to radicalization.
Let us not forget that there is a real modernization with
with regard to society. There are plurial orientations and
lifestyles through, among other things, secularization and certain views
democratic values, norms and regulations. This can be ambivalence
and a lack of orientation for many young people. There is
more choice but thus less certainty! The ways to get you
distinguished, the interests to distinguish yourself increase. There is
more competitive pressure. The equality becomes greater. The loss to
old structures and traditions makes that the need for recognition
increases. Freedom brings displacement at the same time.
Increased possibilities for self-realization are accompanied by
breakdown of self-evidence. Growing through modernization also individualization. People make more and more choices, we attach more importance to concepts such as self-development, independence and autonomy.
Religion also becomes an individual choice. The norms and values shifting and making personal choices goes beyond the coercion of collective religious traditions. There is a very one personal interpretation. You have to search “yourself” … The question of “who am I in fact” is a very difficult issue. This for every young person …
Take a Muslim youth now :
This is located between 2 cultures and does not feel any at both perfect part. On the one hand not fully accepted within the Western world, on the other hand, the bond with “mother” is country of the parents weakened. They know the language less, ditto the same traditions … Only holidays are there, where they are be labeled as a foreigner. A broad, thus obtained as it were hybrid identity. One serves with several value systems at the same time. Some practically agree with this to. For some, however, it is unbridgeable. These form a weak one bond with one or even both of the cultures and know absolutely not how they should act and what they should think of it.
All this can lead to emotional and behavioral problems. It can lead to a radical rejection of one culture. The parents of the young people usually retain their own culture, where young people tend to adapt. This is possible lead to loss of status of parents (in the eyes of …, often the daddy) and religious distance between parent and child (the young people go looking to an own Islam, a “pure” Islam free from the “Superficial” traditions of the parents.
Sometimes we see the process preceded by a radicalization process trigger, eg a major event, new school, death from a loved one … OR the child, the young person is “stuck” in being search for his own identity. Suddenly old visions fit
worldviews do not measure in the new situations and there must be new ones
visions are developed. This is often accompanied by a certain degree of social isolation.
People suddenly need new answers to life questions, but also very important! To warmth and security!
Radicalization is a process of removal and alienation. A person with little, less bond with his environment and the overall society. Little identification. Who feels alone and
misunderstood is therefore much more susceptible to radicalization. Deprivation is very important. If anyone feels little to lose increases the chance of radicalization. Lack leads to
a negative self-image and a negative attitude towards society can be a consequence.
It makes the younger defensive, it increases the chance of victimization
distancing and withdrawing within the own group.
Everyone must feel psychologically safe. Feeling psychologically unsafe leads to a defensive attitude and isolating oneself from social contacts. One gets rigid. There are no more nuances; in group you get more group cohesion, in other words, people become more intolerant of the “other”. People focus on high-ranking leaders and power organizations. People focus on only their own interests, and no more
on common interests. Conflict becomes personal!
There is a reinforced group identification and thus a weakened one personality identification.
Look at a Muslim adolescent who does not feel appreciated. He becomes
punished for his origin. There is a great feeling about it injustice. There is a separation between the native and immigrant. Because of this separation, some feel second-rate. They
are going to make their own identity. Own in this case Muslim identity. Islam is being revalued as a religion and gets extremely much meaning as a “marker” in his search
to “identity”. By reinforcing the Muslim identity one gets as it were a fulfillment of the need, the need for binding and acceptance. A support, a source of confidence and sometimes even a sense of superiority with regard to non-Muslims.
Most young people go no further than identification with Muslim identity, others are going to focus on the content of religion and want to be a “good” Muslim at all costs
internet, chat, prone to hate preachers …). These young people want clear rules: good-evil … In their search, then it is especially the conservative ideas that reach the youngsters.
The radical division of the world into friend and foe and into good and evil has a simplifying effect. There is an unjust fight good and evil, ts friend and foe. This meets the unjust struggle, a situation that many young people experience. This offers an explanation. Substantiation of one’s own anger and frustrations. Emphasis on solidarity and brotherhood with all Muslims for bonding and a sense of togetherness. By the feeling of superiority identification as a radical Muslim contributes to the expansion of self-esteem. Create the clear rules of radicalism in addition, for many, the clear framework where such a great need is on. The young person has too much radical ideas.
Because the young person cannot yet think in a nuanced way, they become
attracted to extreme thinking (black-and-white thinking). Radicalism sets clear rules. This gives peace. Rest safety. No more choices have to be made. One finds clear handles on how to behave and how to behave to direct his life. One belongs to something!
They are part of a group where they learn all kinds of friends know the same lifestyle and ideas. With them they can lost negative emotions, frustrations and indignation. The
radical ideas cannot only function for personal and social identity and meaning but also for a social one world vision. There is an urge for unity among young Muslims.
In addition, the idealistic size of young people. Young people with one difficult identity development are ideal targets.
Our society shows a serious, very comprehensive social and psychological issues related to and in radicalizing, the ‘radicalizing’. We need to gain insights into the world and the situation of the person concerned. We absolutely cannot do any radical or possible traveler out on one and the same comb. Anything but any radicalized person who leaves for Syria, yes or no , or want to leave, want to wage war and / or fight there.
Sometimes they just want to provide or receive support. Support, respect, a sense of dedication to their ideology … The role of faith is here often secondary. Coercion and prohibition of parents works often counterproductive and promotes more theft.
When travelers return to mainstream society, being voluntary or forced, a whole process begins. Literally and figuratively, the person concerned must proceed to it handing in his ammunition, he must be taught that the war is not going on here and finally he serves it
happened to leave behind. The impact of shelter after the return to the war zone is immense interest. Someone who comes back from a war has gone for it not to mention unpleasant things. Multiple experiences of violence of all kinds of intensities that occur in
a vulnerable period of the individual (identity development). Experiences such as mass killings, beheadings and rapes are but some examples where the self-seeking personality is confronted with.
’The warrior leaves the fight, the fight does not leave the
There is trauma.
Every trauma must be processed. Such individuals suffer from all kinds of complaints as emerging memories, nightmares, increased irritability, concentration problems, listlessness, anxiety attacks, insomnia, aggression and / or the urge to avoid.
There is negative cognition (also included) under the name of PTSD, post-traumatic stress disorder). In addition to the specific symptoms, you often see problems with emotion
regulation, disturbed interpersonal relationships, a negative distorted self-image … Sometimes it is “suddenly being lost”, she are, as it were, ready from one moment to the next to fight. One feels like back in a war zone. Terrifying dreams, the re-experience. One notices a certain one insensitivity and incompetence to make contacts outside the own world. An enormous alertness to trouble, a certain feeling
of uncertainty, aggression.
The degree of processing of such trauma depends, among other things of the life phase of occurrence the circumstances in which and the personality. Usually the older one counts, the ‘easier’ to process. This of course depends on the nature of experiences. This issue often concerns a young person who is involved in one major life issue, identity development. Young people up search for adherents of security. One must also take into account take into account the latency period being the time that passes before there is awareness of the severity of influence.
There must be some awareness, reflection and self-reflection. Here alone we see a big launch in the face of returning Syrian fighters. There is a lot of misunderstanding regarding the experience of the person concerned. The so-called ‘bizarre, abnormal’ must
to be recognized and acknowledged that they want to influence it reduce, let alone being processed.
The ‘abnormality’ must be central to the experience. As long as the trauma does not receive or receives insufficient attention and recognition the person concerned remains out of balance. One notices one simplification of relationships. The hierarchy of values and
standards are more pronounced in the emergency situation. The ‘right’ or ‘being wrong’ becomes more complicated. Society in one war situation is totally different than the ‘regular’ one society.
Totally different values and norms apply radicalized than are even more pronounced. We have thus too with a reinforcing element. Recognition, after all, has a liberating effect, while denial is tragic.
People start to idealize deeds as heroic deeds, the’ out of place ‘are, as it were, the damned. The here not only concerns what happened but also the experience and
the interpretation given to this and which makes life very strong will control.
There is thus a serious social problem when viewing war trauma with returning radicalized youngster
Within ethics as a person, we must act according to the concept “everyone has the right to help, everyone has the right to right of recognition ‘.
The desire to radicalize and, if necessary, occur addressing extremism and terror goes well beyond it individualistic, altruistic. Fight against radicalization and deradicalization is an antidote just before Society and the fellow man.
We must be realistic and note that we are no longer committed
Spend the Middle Ages where it proved sufficient for an individual to be to close and throw away the key. Our current society embraces human rights for everyone thus asserts itself challenge with the radicalization issue. Ostrich policy goes no longer on. There was AL-QAIDA, there is IS. There was bad, there is worse. In other words, dealing with or rather non-dealing with radicalism has major consequences.
Extremism, countering terror, deradicalization is just like the radicalization in itself is therefore a whole process. If we specify that the 3 main reasons for radicalizing are the urge to meaning and identity, the feeling of (in) justice and the search for social bonding and / or social affiliation. Then We can also state clearly that deradicalisation is a whole
assignment is. After all, we have to bump into the many benefits of it radicalism being the bond with the extremist group (friends, couples, a whole network of togetherness), the practical ones benefits (wages, possession of weapons), sharing the same extremist
philosophy of life and of course the ideals, the struggle itself! We must first emphasize the disadvantages of the group. The make aware of the possible consequences of the behavior
for the future and stimulating search for a alternative social environment.
It involves a complete dismantling of the entire radical train of thought which can mean a traumatic event. Trauma’ in view of all the loss of identity and right to exist. Each
person with the symptom ‘radicalism’ has an identity problem where he or she has entered a certain ideological identity to fit. When deradicalizing (often also in custody) we suddenly drastically finish this lost identity. We offer permanent support within our methodology who does not judge, never condemns. The key aspect is to create a certain bond of trust where the individual becomes heard and understood. The individual must be aware of our honesty and commitment. We offer their support and support to be able to reformulate their perspectives, to experience the whole to re-transform.
All this with the basic attitude of respect and cooperation. We cooperate, search along, reflect along. An always respectful contact in the spirit of solidary, steadfast cooperation.
Highly empathetic and respectful approach. One of the first objectives is to achieve that
everything that was previously offered with regard to self-image, the sense of self-worth and identity wrong and / or a was an illusion. The ‘friendly’ bond with the group is sudden a real disillusion in which the manipulating, the question of
morality of values, false loyalty and false safety become visible.
We will explore the motivation in particular politically and / or ideologically
and together indicate where we are trying to identify the causes and goals dismantle. This exposes certain contradictions where we start to doubt ideologically and question the status. There is talk about fears and frustrations (the group did not offer any solid solution-oriented approach). If it concerns a search to adventure, action and sensation we go the true life of one make extremist public with endless waiting for action etc.
We think the lifting of the dual will be a very disappointing one important factor.
During the conversations certain feelings, thoughts, experiences interpreted and canceled with the aim of learning to deal with feelings of hate, fear and / or anger.
A new identity development must take place. Individual mentoring with working on critical thinking, relational skills, empathy, self-image, responsibility
and the potential for self-reflection is present. Trying to see an individual, unique, behind every “radical” who once, like everyone of us, was a virtually blank page. Values such as compassion, mercy, forgiveness become learned. Stir up purpose and discipline, broaden the mind, confrontations with own attitudes, action reaction. Restoring bond with family,
siblings and peers must be done. It often turns out to be inadequate parent / child (child-father usually) relationship partly to the origin sit of radicalizing. A lot of attention is needed here to be spent on. New relationships and ties with people who to respect the laws of society must come into existence. In consultation (always) with the individual we will search within the environment to people with whom it has a certain relationship or who wants something mean for him / her. Interest must be raised for a specific course,
work perspective as identification with the norms and values of the current, democratic society. Such goals are paramount with every individual.
The reality within our current system often turns out to be at odds above methodology.
We ran into many obstacles. One looks at the setting prisons. The prisons act as a collection of vulnerable people, people looking for a new identity and new certainties
life. Now we only see the separation of the “hate preachers” or “Contagious”. Information is important for deradicalisation in prisons about the client, the form and extent of radicalization. Extreme attention for aftercare! One must pay attention to leaving it radical environment but also for creating another social one surroundings.
Deradicalisation must be able to offer alternatives! We must confront the many benefits of radicalism being the bond with the extremist group (friends, couples, a whole network of togetherness), the practical benefits (wages, possession of weapons), sharing the same extremist philosophy of life and of course the ideals, the struggle itself!
We need to look for alternatives to all of these:
* Bonding with non-extremist people who resist violence.
* Integration in a supportive environment.
- Offer role models
Prisons function as it were as the ultimate criticism and decline
of a stage of recognition and right to exist with the result a hiring sense of discrimination and racism. The mechanism (see profiling circle) thus continues.
As already widely discussed, the identity or precisely the problematic forming an identity is a very important facet throughout problems. For many negative reasons, people decide to identify with a certain grouping, with a certain ideology … a clear identity is assumed. This identical appears to be inconsistent with our currently experienced norms and values with as a result, exile often occurs.
Within custody it is required to say goodbye to the previous one
acquired identity and one presents something entirely new, conforming
average norms and values. A very difficult task given the stigma and labeling
within the current system. Experience offers to explain how it is impossible for a person designated as a radical to unleash its ‘radical’ label. And this already presents itself
the first hurdle. Do not judge or condemn the option, securely make them feel etc is quickly threatened when the prisoner / the accused is chronically rejected / isolated and thus always becomes more isolated within his ‘problem’ of radicalism.
The imprisonment itself is a trauma. . Traumata provided that little sense of existence exists dishonesty, identitylessness, injustice and social insulating always increases. One touches as it were aligned with fears and negative emotions increasing strike. The duality becomes me versus she (see we versus she) strengthens!
After x-determined period we note the release (trauma 4 considering the
limited assistance within custody and nil aftercare). With others words a released projectile as a result of ticking time bomb in the middle of Society where everyone is concerned about the future being our children.
Integration issues such as social and social exclusion, difficult access to the labor market and education is and remains one very large element as a breeding ground for radicalization. Inside the integration policy there is a very important aspect being clear
communication about the individuality (way of life and customs) of the various populations and cultures. In other words mutual understanding and consensus must take place. Prevention of radical ideas is therefore very paramount. This one starts as explained extensively on the basis of the profiling circle extremely early in the individual personal
The reality is that the young person is usually arrested and locked up and is isolated where the recovery with the parents and the previous social environment is of great importance. Isolation of parents promotes the return to radicalism. One enters a fixed view of Western thinking. Also they are often brought together with fellow sufferers, radicals. Below they seek security and confirmation within their minds.
Upon a possible return from Syria, support is always required in the transition from war to peace situation, the physical and mental demobilization, psycho-education, phasing out hostility … Without an adequate approach, the young person will pass the skills, standards and dignities learned in war zone here.
We need to get insights into the world and the situation of the person in question. The impact and role of the immediate environment is of essential. A recovery must take place between the young person and the family. (The family background is a very important part of this important aspect. Certainly if the young person has started to radicalize from a sense of isolation). Processing war traumas and war experiences must be accompanied
with the re-learning of adequate norms and values.
The norms and values of democracy, gender equivalence and accurate social manners. Guidance is needed in the transition from war to peace situation, physical and mental demobilization, psycho-education and reducing the need for hostility. In first of all, psychological counseling is needed!
There has to be a re-insertion where new skills are needed to be taught and assets to be declared (education, work). Aftercare and guidance! An extensive talk and interpretation of complaints, express themselves about events, describe the experienced course of life
his requirements. Both individual and family therapy are on the agenda. Customized individual approach. Personal, focused approach (restore link with Western society) and group oriented approach (increasing resilience, eliminating isolation). Helping families is a key event. The family, de Peers, siblings, parents as a direct environment are strongly counter-narrative against the radical.
We have to offer a backbone to the radicalising person also to the immediate environment of the person concerned. The parents, peers, siblings, family, the preceding social
surroundings. All these fall out of the net. Where they will just be with countless questions and frustrations to sit. Gain insight into why radicalizing, thefamily conditions etc … psychological support and intra-familial guidance, family support, conversations …
Parents struggle with feelings of fear, frustration, powerlessness. They must be provided with information about radicalization and identity development. We must pay attention to the siblings and to be involved in the entire process. All individuals who are attracted to the radical or themselves label as radical need support to a POSITIVE to develop identity and find their place in society. They need appreciation, confirmation and recognition for themselves as a person and for the questions and challenges they face. All contact must in the first place be controlled by an open, positive and supportive attitude and certainly not by one of them suspicion and accusation.
There is a real dismantling of the entire radical
train of thought. It seems to me a point of attention that this can enhance a traumatic happening.
Finally, one of our objectives is to achieve realization that everything that was previously offered with regard to it self-image, the sense of self-worth and the identity wrong and / or was an illusion.
A new identity development must take place. Individual mentoring with working on critical thinking, relational skills, empathy, self-image, responsibility
and the ability to self-reflect. Trying to see an individual, unique, behind every “radical”
who once, like everyone of us, was a virtually blank page. We have to mean lasting support, which is not judges, never condemns. Certain feelings, thoughts, experiences during the conversations indicate and cancel. Learning to deal with feelings of hate, fear and / or anger. Recognition with values such as compassion, mercy, forgiveness. Stirring purpose and discipline … The mind widening …. Confrontations with own attitudes, action response. Learning to make new bonds, among others. restore bond with family,
siblings and peers (people who follow the laws of society to respect). Generate interest for a specific education, work perspective. Encourage identification with the norms and values of the the current, democratic society. Search (always) with the individual within the environment for people with whom it has a certain bond or who wants something
mean to him.
Lifting the dual thinking!
The key aspect would be to have a certain relationship of trust create where the individual is heard and understood. The individual must be aware of our honesty and commitment.
We should offer their support and guidance to improve their perspectives being able to reformulate, to transform the whole experience. All this with the basic attitude of respect and cooperation. We cooperate, search along, reflect along. An always respectful contact in the spirit of solidary, steadfast cooperation. Highly empathetic and respectful approach.
The first conversations aiming at the vision and experiences , to get to know the individual yourself. Conversations about respect, experiencing and expressing feelings and relating to others, Focus on the expectations, social skills, emotional intelligence (mainly EQ with regard to conflict, anger, shame and fear). Have an eye for the need for practical problems and questions. The motivation especially political and / or ideological (causes, goals
dismantle; indicate contradictions; doubting ideologically; status check).
The view connection with the group (disillusion, the manipulating, question of morality of values, hypocrisy, dishonesty, fake loyalty, false safety). Talking about fears and frustrations (the group did not offer solid solution-oriented approach). If it concerns a search for adventure, action and sensation (invalidating the true life of an extremist, endless waiting for action, shocking with real ones
violence, the loss of killed fellow sufferers). Based on acquired information and insights multisystemic offer sessions …
Unique, individual in which people reflect and reflect several times adjust if necessary.
Question, indications as :
* What needs to change about or within the person himself?
* What should we offer him?
* How can we parents and other important families support environmental members to influence the person in a favorable way?
* Practical matters such as leisure activities etc …
* What works effectively yes or no to the confidence of the individual to win and forge a substantiated partnership ?
Together with those important family members, we serve as to act as attachment figures. A new group of solidarity with a continuous dialogue.
School policy must also be implemented.
School must be a safe environment for children with various needs
religions and all kinds of baggage from backgrounds:
* Broaden the children’s world, introduce them to
the diversity and experiences. Positive experience of Islam!
* Discussing future perspectives: individuals, children
view it personally and focus on your own qualifications.
* Preventing polarization! Remove the ignorance.
* Examples, quoting role models
* Learn how to use the internet
* Promoting No Hate Speech Movement
* No blame, No Shame lessons
* Lessons of life keys
* Cross-curricular lessons
* Tackle the free time
* Show understanding
* Encourage solidarity
* View and search for supply in your own region
* Establish a type of youth care in every school, and / or region
and / or department! Where there is possibility to guide
families, extracurricular activities, social training
Make contacts with mosques, create networks every
* Give the youth the feeling that society DOES care for them!
Stumbling blocks :
* It will not be obvious for teachers who must attend
subject to secularism, gender equality
* From Western culture it is not going to be obvious for any to
influence the parents and children concerned. Child and
parent do not want to lose face, confess guilt. The child may be afraid of showing no or insufficient respect to the father.
* Enable Muslim experts, but with the risk that they will be seen
* How to identify the target group without labeling.
Brown, R., & Gaertner, S.L. (2001). Blackwell Handbook of social psychology: intergroup processes. Oxford: Blackwell.
Buijs, F. J., Demant, F., & Hamdy, A. (2006). Strijders van eigen bodem.
Radicale en democratische moslims in Nederland. Amsterdam: University Press.
Gurr, T. (1970). Why men rebel. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Hoffman, B. (2006). Inside terrorism. New York: Colombia University Press.
Kellen, K. (1979). Terrorists- what are they like? How some terrorists describe their world and actions. Santa Monica: Rand.
Schmid A.P. (1983). Political Terrorism. New Brunswick: Transaction Books.
Silke, A. P. (2003). Becoming a terrorist. Chichester: Wiley.
Taylor, M., & Quayle, E.(1994). Terrorist lives. London: Brassey’s.
Thrasher, F. (1963). The gang: A study of 1,316 gangs in Chicago. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Tyler, T. R., & Huo,Y.J. (2002). Trust in the law. New York: Russel sage foundation.
Vander Velpen, J. (1986). De CCC. Berchem: EPO.
Whitaker (1972). The fourth world: Victims of group oppression: eight reports from the field work of the minority rights group. New York: Schocken.
Wieviorka, M. (1993). The making of terrorism. Chicago: University of Chicago press.
Hacker, F. J. (1983). Dialectic interrelationships of personal and political factors in terrorism. In L. Z. Friedman, & Y. Alexander (Eds.), Perspectives on terrorism (pp. 19-31).
Tajfel, H., & Turner, J.C. (1986). The social identity theory of intergroup behaviour. In S. Worchel, & W.G. Austin, (Ed.), Psychology of intergroup relations (pp. 7-24). Chicago : Nelson.
Bakker, E. (2004). Zin en onzin van de zoektocht naar oorzaken van terrorisme. Internationale Spectator, 11.
Bijeenkomsten van extremistische groeperingen (2010). Openbare orde, 1-12
Crenshaw, M. (2000). The psychology of terrorism: An agenda for the 21st century. Political Psychology, 21, 405-420.
Tyler, T. R. (2001). Trust and law abidingness: a proactive model of social regulation. Boston Universety Law Review , 81, 361-406
Van Leeuwen, M. (2005). Ronselen in Europa voor de Heilige Oorlog. Justitiele verkenningen, 31 (2), 84-94
Victoroff, J. (2005).The mind of the terrorist: a review and critique of psychological approaches. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 49(3), 3.